I'd like to find out if there's a graphic which "puts it all together;" e.g., shows planting schedules for Philadelphia, vegetable and edible
You will most likely NOT find such a comprehensive graphic as you want. Your best bet would be to come into the library here at PHS to use some of the books that have at least some of your answers. Among those that could be helpful are books by Liz Ball (Philadelphia Gardening Book or Month-by-Month Gardening in Pennsylvania) or by Derek Fell on the same subject. There is also Northeast Gardening issued by The American Horticultural Society.
You may read these books, and others, in the library here. It is open from 9 to 5, Monday through Friday. If you were to become a member of PHS you would be able to take books out of the library as well.
The information you want is fairly complex. Who knows? You may end up doing your own graphic!